CCME Water Quality Index: An overview

CCME Water Quality Index: An overview

National Water Quality Indicator for Canada Rob Kent National Water Quality Monitoring Office National Water Research Institute Environment Canada UN International Work Session on Water Statistics Vienna, Austria June 20-22, 2005 Environment Canada Environnement Canada Outline: Background, context Data generation - monitoring Canadian Water Quality Index and Reporting out Benefits and challenges Conclusions Environment Canada Environnement Canada Background Consistent a top priority for

Canadians Increased public concern and decreased confidence in water safety External criticism of current status Commitment to better inform Canadians on national water quality Respond to Canadian values on water: drinkable, swimmable, fishable, available Environment Canada Environnement Canada A modern integrated approach moving beyond taking the sample Functional Elements: 1. Program Design - objectives 2. Methods development, Lab support 3. Research support 4. Data management 5. Interpretive tools/guidance 6. Reporting, indicators and information systems 7. Partnerships / Outreach 8. National co-ordination Environment Canada

Environnement Canada Water Quantity Monitoring Environment Canada Environnement Canada Water Quality Monitoring National Roundtable on the Environment and Economy Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators Understandable indicators to track whether Canada's current economic activities threaten the way of life for future generations Track natural assets including the ecosystem services that are crucial to sustaining the economy in the long term Water Quality: Canadian WQI as the Freshwater Quality Indicator Environment Canada Environnement

Canada The CWQI and Reporting Out Environment Canada Environnement Canada Environment Canada Environnement Canada National Water Quality Indicator Initiative Vision: Canadians will recognize and use the WQ Indicator as a trusted source of information on national water quality Sustainability of major water uses: Rob Kent, Janinefor Murray, Don Andersen 1.Source water drinking

Chris Lochner 2.Water for and recreation 3.Water forQuality agriculture (livestock, irrigation) Water Monitoring Branch 4.Water for aquatic life Institute National Water Research 5.Water for industrial uses Joint CWRA - Government of Canada Workshop: Building Relationships for Integrated Water Resource Management Ottawa, February 6, 2004 Environment Canada Environnement Canada CCME WQI: An overview National Water Quality Indicator Framework Natural Environment

Water Quality and Aquatic Ecosystems a. Protected areas (e.g., National Parks) b. Areas impacted by human activity Human Health Water Quality and Don Human Exposure Rob Kent, Janine Murray, Andersen and Chris Lochner a. Consumption - Source waters for drinking b. Recreation - beach closures, aesthetics Water Quality Monitoring Branch National Water Research Institute Competitiveness Water Use and Availability Joint CWRA - Government of Canada Workshop: a. Industrial uses Building Relationships for Integrated Water Resource b. Agriculture

uses Management Ottawa, February 6, 2004 Environment Canada Environnement Canada CCME WQI: An overview Canadian WQI WQI 100 2 2 2 1 2 3 F F F 1.732 Scope (F1) - number of variables not meeting water quality objectives Frequency (F2) - the number of times the

objectives are not met Amplitude (F3) - the extent to which objectives exceeded. Environment Canada Environnement Canada CWQI rating system Environment Canada Environnement Canada F1 Scope s c i t s F indicates the percentage of i t parameters, whose guidelines are not

a t met. S e r F = Number o of Failed Variables X 100 M Total Number of Variables Scope assesses the extent of compliance with water quality guidelines over the time period of interest. 1 1 Environment Canada Environnement Canada F2 Frequency Assesses the frequency with whichs c guidelines are not met. i t

s of individual F indicates the percentage i t tests which do not meet guidelines (i.e. a t failed tests) S e F = Number of Failed Tests X 100 r o Total Number of Tests M 2 2 Environment Canada Environnement Canada F3 Amplitude

s c i t s i t a t S { } e r o M { } Amplitude assesses the amount by which guidelines are not met. F3 indicates the amount by which failed test values do not meet their guidelines, and is calculated in 3 steps. The number of times an individual concentration exceeds a guideline is termed an excursion. When the test value must not exceed the guideline: excursioni = Failed Test Valuei Guidelinej

-1 When the test value must not fall below the guideline: excursioni = Environment Canada Environnement Canada Guidelinej Failed Test Valuei -1 F3 Amplitude (cont.) s c i t s i t a t S

The collective amount by which individual tests are out of compliance with guidelines is calculated by summing the excursions of individual tests, and dividing by the total number of tests which failed guidelines. This variable is referred to as the normalized sum of excursions, or nse. n excursionsi i=1 e r o M { nse = # of tests F3 is then calculated to yield a value between 0 and 100 F3 = Environment Canada Environnement Canada

nse 0.01 nse + 0.01 } Typical Applications Selected parameters (~10) related to water use at monitoring site Most appropriate ambient WQ guidelines or objectives (site-specific) 3yr average values from at least 9 periods; or stratified use of CWQI over specific periods (freshet, recession and base flow) Environment Canada Environnement Canada Benefits and Challenges Environment Canada Environnement Canada

CWQI What does it do? Communication tool transforms complex water quality data into understandable descriptions (e.g., good, fair, poor) Scientific rigor - maximum use of monitoring data Consistent use and interpretation across distributed jurisdictions Applies to all beneficial water uses i.e., socioeconomically relevant Amenable to multiple reporting scales - local, regional and national scales of reporting Environment Canada Environnement Canada CWQI From data to knowledge Cu Hg 1 0.3 0.4 2 0.5

3 0.9 4 1.2 5 4.5 6 0.8 7 0.6 8 0.8 Environment Canada Environnement Canada Number of stations

Sample 5.2 NO3 P NH4 DOC Cl Cd Zn Status of freshwater quality in Canada 3.2 6.3 0.3 0.4 8.5 6.3 5.3 0.7

8.5 0.5 5.2 0.7 8.5 8.4 4.6 0.9 4.6 4.5 4.6 6.3 1.3 1.2 2.3 0.3

1.3 9.4 2.5 4.5 5.6 8.5 2.5 1.5 7.4 0.8 4.8 0.6 7.4 4.3 9.1 0.6

3.1 0.4 9.1 7.6 7.5 0.8 8.7 0.1 7.4 3.5 120 4.5 100 2.3 800.3 5.6 608.5 4.8 400.6 3.1 200.4 8.7 00.1 4.6

ll e c x E t n e o G od F r ai gi r a M l a n P r

o o Environmental Sustainability Index 2005 (World Economic Forum; Yale/Columbia University research) Canada- Overall rank 6th out of 146 countries Environmental Systems Environmental Stresses Human Vulnerability 4 / 146 104/ 146 2/ 146 Reducing Air Pollution Air Quality Water Quantity Reducing Water Stress Reducing Ecosystem Water Quality Biodiversity Terrestrial Systems

Science/Technology Basic Human Sustenance Private Sector Stresses Reducing Waste and Consumption Pressures Environment-related Natural Disaster Exposure Reducing Population Pressure Natural Resource Management Social and Institutional Capacity 14 / 146 Environmental Health Responsiveness Environmental Governance Eco-Efficiency Global

Stewardship 133/ 146 Participation in International Collaborative Efforts Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reducing Transboundary Environmental Pressures 6 22 Environment Canada Environnement Canada CCME WQI: An overview Expressing Results Nationally (NRTEE Report 2003) Rob Kent, Janine Murray, Don Andersen and Chris Lochner Water Quality Monitoring Branch National Water Research Institute Joint CWRA - Government of Canada Workshop:

Building Relationships for Integrated Water Resource Management Ottawa, February 6, 2004 Environment Canada Environnement Canada CCME WQI: An overview Spatial Framework Environment Canada Environnement Canada Other Challenges Integrating physical, chemical and biological measurements and processes Spatial scale; aggregating results Rob Kent, Janine Murray, Don Andersen Weighting of F1,2,3 and Chris Lochner

NaturalWater phenomena vs human Quality Monitoring Branch impacts National Waterjudgement Research Institute Best scientific Joint CWRA - Government of Canada Workshop: Building Relationships for Integrated Water Resource Management Ottawa, February 6, 2004 Environment Canada Environnement Canada CCME WQI: An overview Conclusion Water quality indicator integrating all data into socially relevant report card within distributed multijurisdictional model Continuous improvement Credibility through expert judgement Rob Kent, Janine Murray, Don Andersen Start at integrating water quality and quantity and Chris Lochner

measures into natural capital accounting Water Quality Monitoring Branch Key to behavioural change, strengthened National Water Research Institute measurement capacity and enhanced resource management performance Joint CWRA - Government of Canada Workshop: Building Relationships for Integrated Water Resource Management Ottawa, February 6, 2004 Environment Canada Environnement Canada CCME WQI: An overview

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