Chapter 2 Section 1 - Suffolk City Public Schools

Chapter 2 Section 1 - Suffolk City Public Schools

Mr. Gordon Chapter 2 Section 1 Roots of American Democracy

Main Idea American democracy was shaped by our English political heritage, colonial experiments in selfgovernment, and a range of intellectual influences.

English Political Heritage Colonial government would never be an exact copy of the British system. Colonial leaders adapted

old ideas, based on English traditions, to a new environment. English Political Heritage Representative Government

Tradition began in 11th century. Evolved into bicameral, or twochamber, legislature Nobles comprised Upper House. Local representatives participated in House of Commons.

Bicameral English Political Heritage Limited Government Began in 1215 when King John

signed Magna Carta Moved from rule of man to rule of law Outlined individual rights which king could not violate Included taxation and trial provisions

Magna Carta Magna Carta English Political

Heritage Individual Rights 1628: King Charles required to sign Petition of Right Required monarchs to obtain Parliamentary approval before

levying new taxes, also could not unlawfully imprison people or establish military rule during times of peace English Political

Heritage Extended conflict between Charles and Parliament erupted into civil war in 1642. Charles defeated, beheaded

English Political Heritage 1685: renewed conflicts and rebellion between the Crown and Parliament

1689: William and Mary chosen to rule, but had to govern according to statutes of Parliament English Political

Heritage 1689: English Bill of Rights passed Free speech and protection from cruel and unusual

punishment guaranteed Glorious Revolution established constitutional monarchy. Roots of American Democracy

English Colonies English colonists began to settle parts of North America in the

early 1600s, bringing English political theories and methods of governance. English Colonies Experiments in Early Governance

Jamestowns House of Burgesses, 1619 Mayflower Compact, 1620 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1639 Massachusetts Body of Liberties,

1641 Each charter guaranteed English Colonies

Types of English Colonies Three types established Proprietary, based on land grant to individual or group English Colonies

Types of English Colonies Royal colonies, directly controlled by king through appointed governor English Colonies Types of English Colonies

Charter colonies, operated under charters agreed to by colony and king; had most independence from the Crown Intellectual Influences

Intellectual Influences In addition to English traditions, ideas were key to transforming loyal English colonists first into revolutionaries and then into

founders of a new nation. Intellectual Influences Republicanism Idea of representative government going back to

Greece and Rome Highly values citizen participation, public good, civic virtue Influences included Aristotle,

Intellectual Influences Judeo-Christian Influences Religious heritage common to both Christianity and Judaism Law and individual rights of divine origin

Intellectual Influences Enlightenment Thinkers EnlightenmentIntellectual movement in 18th century Europe

Classical liberal concerns addressed in Enlightenment Intellectual Influences Enlightenment Thinkers Framers of U.S. Constitution

believed in peoples natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Social contractPeople form a government to protect their rights Philosophers John Locke and JeanJacques Rousseau important

contributors Intellectual Influences Enlightenment Thinkers Economic and civil liberties important as well

Other influences included Adam Smith, Voltaire, William Blackstone.

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