A simulation to describe the effects of in-shoe orthoses
Dr Gunther Paul, Chris Bishop, Mike Arakilo, Dr Dominic Thewlis.
University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia.
email: [email protected]
In-shoe foot orthoses are commonly prescribed by podiatrists
to help correct biomechanical abnormalities of the lower limb. Table 1: Muscle force and relative difference to control
The goal of in-shoe orthoses is to reduce the loading forces
acting on the lower limb in order to allow for proper
rehabilitation, to prevent new injuries occurring and to promote
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more efficient dynamic gait patterns. Research aiming to No Intervention 131
analyse the effects of orthoses on knee, hip and pelvis Lat Wedge
kinematics has shown little effect . Thus in view of the Med Wedge
Stance phase (between loading response and toe off)
minimal effect of orthoses on joints proximal to the foot,
orthoses may have additional effects on the functional tissues
of the lower limbs.
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The aim of this study was to simulate the effect of in-shoe
foot orthoses through the manipulation of ground reaction
Steady state walking trial
Three-dimensional (3-D) motion data captured using
8-camera VICON MX F40 system at 120Hz
Defined a custom modified VICON Plug-in Gait model marker
set including 22 markers in order to register kinematics of the
foot and ankle accurately
Force data sampled using 2 Kistler force plates at 2000Hz
Joint kinematics and moments modeled from raw kinematic
data in VICON Bodybuilder
Developed a dynamic musculoskeletal model in AnyBody
(Anybody Technology)(Fig 1.)
Fig. 2: Muscle force during stance phase for a) m .tibialis posterior; b) m.
tibialis anterior; c) m. peroneus and d) m. gluteus medius. The grey
shaded area represents loading response.
Our manipulation of the data set appears to be a realistic
simulation of the effect of in-shoe orthoses on the muscle force
in m. tibialis posterior, m. tibialis anterior, m. peroneus, and m.
gluteus medius during both the rearfoot loading response and
stance phase of the gait cycle. The simulation identified
changes in muscle force that we might clinically expect to find
with the use of in-shoe foot orthoses, e.g. that peak muscle
Fig. 1: The AnyBody musculoskeletal model
force was reduced by lateral wedging. The ability of muscles to
The reaction forces acting on m. tibialis posterior, m. tibialis adapt to changes in medial-lateral force and the displacement
anterior, m. peroneus, and m. gluteus medius were calculated of the COP when using in-shoe orthoses was shown.
by the model using a Min-Max recruitment solver 
The original lateral force (Fy) data was multiplied by 1.5  Nester,C., van der Linden,M., Bowker,P., 2003. Effect of foot orthoses on
based on medial-lateral GRF differences reported in  to the kinematics and kinetics of normal walking gait. Gait & Posture 17(2), 180represent the effects of medial wedging. The Fy data was also 187
 Arakilo,M., Thewlis,D., Paul,G., Rasmussen,J., 2009. Simulation of Ankle
divided by 2  to represent the effect of lateral wedging
Joint Forces to Optimise Total Ankle Replacement Design. 7th Australasian
The components CoP:X and CoP:Y were displaced by 20mm Biomechanics Conference. Gold Coast, Australia.
in both the medial and lateral direction to represent the
estimated effect of medial and lateral wedging on the CoP
Ergolab is supported by AutoCRC and DTED.
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