InfoSys 3810 Week Three 2013 Systems Analysis Dr.

InfoSys 3810 Week Three 2013 Systems Analysis Dr.

InfoSys 3810 Week Three 2013 Systems Analysis Dr. Vicki Sauter and Friends Professor, Information Systems University of Missouri Saint Louis Last Week Systems Analysis and Design Five fundamental, separable, yet interrelated

elements Planning including requirements elicitation Analysis Design (including logical design and physical design ( or preliminary design and detailed design) Implementation which includes coding, test, and deployment And Maintenance Last Week Systems Analysis and Design

The waterfall model a sequential process where one phase is completed before the next is started There is significant formalism to this model There is little actual use of this model in todays Information Systems world The Waterfall model is just one systems development methodology Last Week Systems Analysis A Definition Systems Analysis is an explicit formal inquiry carried

out to help someone identify a better course of action and make a better decision than he might otherwise have made. identification and re-identification) of objectives, constraints, and alternative courses of action of the probable consequences of the alternatives in terms of costs, benefits, and risks presentation of the results in a comparative framework so that the decision maker can make an informed choice from among the alternatives Principia Cybernetica Web Last

Week Systems and Systems Analysis Definition of a System A system is composed of interacting parts that operate together to achieve some objective or purpose. a system is intended to "absorb" inputs, process them in some way and produce outputs (where outputs are defined by goals, objectives or common purposes) Last Week Last

Week Last Week Different perspectives for different needs 8 / 49 Last Week Zachman Framework, Cont

VA Enterprise Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who

TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE (CONTEXTUAL) Things Im portant to the Business Processes Performed

Business locations Important Organiz ations Ev ents Signific ant to the Business Business Goals and Strategy Planner Entity = Class of

Business Thing Function = Class of Business Process Node = Major Business Locations People = Major Organiz ations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means =

Major Business Goals ENTERPRISE MODEL (CONCEPTU AL) Semantic Model Business Process Model Business Logistics System Work Flow Model

Master Schedule Business Plan Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event Rel = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle End = Business Objectiv e Means = Business Strategy

SYSTEM MODEL (LOGICAL) Logical Data Model Application Architecture Processing Structure Business Rule Model

Designer Ent = Data Entity Rel = Data Relationship Proc = Application Function Node = IS Function People = Role I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristic s Work = Deliv erable Time = System Event Cycle = Processing Cycle End = Structural Assertion

Means = Action Assertion TECHNOLOGY MODEL (PHYSICAL) Physical Data Model System Design Control Structure

Rule Design Builder Ent = Segment/Table Rel = Pointer/Key Proc = Computer Function Node = Hardware/Softw are People = User I/O = Data Elements /Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Time = Ex ecute End = Condition Cycle = Component Cycle Means = Action

Program Security Architecture Timing Definition Rule Design Data DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS Definition (OUT-OF-CONTEXT)

Distributed System Architecture Technology Architecture Netw ork Architecture Human Interface Architecture Presentation Architecture

Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Rel = Address Proc = Language Statement Node = Addresses I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols People = Identity Work = Job Time = Interrupt Cycle = Machine Cycle

End = Sub-Condition Means = Step FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE Data Function Netw ork Organiz ation

Schedule Strategy Ent = Rel = Proc = I/O = Node = Link = People = Work =

Time = Cycle = End = Means = DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where

R.A. Navarro PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why Based on work by John A. Zachman SCOPE


DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS (OUT-OF-CONTEXT) Sub-Contractor FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE Last Week Business Rules A business rule is a rule of a business, company, or corporation. It is a rule that defines or constrains some aspect of business and always resolves to

either true or false. Business rules are intended to assert business structure or to control or influence the behavior of the business. Business rules describe the operations, definitions and constraints that apply to an organization. Business rules can apply to people, processes, corporate behavior and computing systems in an organization, and are put in place to help the organization achieve its goals. The Requirements Phase of Process Development Definition ( Wikipedia) A requirement is a documented need of what a particular system should be or do.

A requirement can be a description of what a system must do. This type of requirement specifies something that the delivered system must be able to do. Other types of requirements specify something about the system itself, and how well it performs its functions. R.A. Navarro 11/42 Formal Requirements Business Processes Design And

Development Must Be Based On Formal Requirements Functional requirements Non-functional requirements Pseudo requirements R.A. Navarro 12/42 Formal Requirements Methodologies for Requirements Elicitation Archival document analysis Document review Inspiration / Imagineering

Interviews Surveys or Questionnaires Delphi Method Direct Observation Contextual Inquiry Concept Elicitation Focus Groups RAD / JAD Prototyping R.A. Navarro Individualoriented methods

Grouporiented methods 13/42 Creativity The Calf Path One day thru the primeval wood A calf walked home, as good calves should, But made a trail all bent askew, A crooked trail, as all calves do. Since then three hundred years have fled, And I infer, the calf is dead; But still behind he left his trail,

And thereon hangs my mortal tale. The trail was taken up next day By a lone dog that passed that way, And then a wise bell-weather sheep Sliding into a rut now deep, Pursued that trail over hill and glade Thru those old woods a path was made. The Calf Path And many men wound in and out, And dodged and turned and bent about, and uttered words of righteous wrath Because twas such a crooked path But still they follow-do not laughThe first migrations of that calf. The forest became a lane

That bent and turned and turned again; This crooked lane became a road where many a poor horse with his load Toiled on beneath the burning sun, And traveled some three miles in one. The Calf Path The years passed on in swiftness fleet, The village road became a street, And this, before the men were aware, A citys crowded thoroughfare. And soon a central street was this In a renowned metropolis; And men two centuries and a half Followed the wanderings of this calf.

Each day a hundred thousand strong Followed this zigzag calf along; And over his crooked journey went The traffic of a continent. The Calf Path A hundred thousand men were led By one poor calf, three centuries dead. For just such reverence is lent To well established precedent. A moral lesson this might teach Were I ordained and called to preach. For men are prone to go it blind Along the calf paths of the mind; And work away from sun to sun

To do what other men have done. Sam Walter Foss Class Discussion Class Exercise Re: The UMSL Library System You have all researched the UMSL Library Business Rules You all understand the function of a library from a students point of view Develop an Improved set of business rules Be Creative

Notes Networking Expectations are defined on the class website There is a networking opportunity tomorrow morning Breakfast and Business 7:30 am in the MSC Featuring Juli Niemann What Recovery Systems analysis There are two fundamentally different ways of approaching systems analysis Process View Data View

Systems Analysis Processes vs Data Points of View Systems Analysis The Process View A Process is defined as A sequence of related tasks which combine to accomplish a function A transformation Systems Analysis The Process View A system may be modeled using a process documentation formalism A language A representation Schema

Typical among such schema Visio IBM Flow-Charting Templates IDEF Systems Analysis Data View Data are values of qualitative or quantitative variables Data in are typically represented in a structure, often tabular, a tree, or a graph structure. Data are typically the results of measurements Data as an abstract concept can be viewed as

the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived Systems Analysis Data View Wisdom Knowledge Information Data Systems Analysis Data View Systems Analysis Data View DFDs show Input to and output from the system across the system boundary

Inputs and outputs to and from system elements Flow among systems elements Storages DFDs do NOT show timing, control etc. Class Exercise Working in groups: Define the data necessary to support a system developed to meet YOUR new library business rules

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