The Skeletal System - Dr. Gerry Cronin

The Skeletal System - Dr. Gerry Cronin

Table 6-1 An Introduction to Bone Markings (1 of 2) 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 6-1 An Introduction to Bone Markings (2 of 2) 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Skeletal Divisions (6-6) Axial skeleton includes: The skull and associated bones The thoracic cage with the ribs and sternum The vertebral column Appendicular skeleton includes: The pectoral girdle and the upper limbs The pelvic girdle and the lower limbs 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-8 The Skeleton.

Skull Clavicle Scapula Humerus Ribs Vertebrae Radius Ulna Hip bone Sacrum Carpal Coccyx bones Metacarpal bones Phalanges Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Anterior view

Tarsal bones Metatarsal bones Phalanges 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view Figure 6-9 The Axial and Appendicular Divisions of the Skeleton. AXIAL SKELETON 126 Cranium 8 Skull 14 Clavicle 2

Auditory 6 ossicles Scapula 2 Humerus 2 Radius 2 Ulna 2 Carpal bones

16 Face Skull and associated 29 bones Associated bones Thoracic cage APPENDICULAR SKELETON 80 Hyoid Hyoid 1

Sternum 1 Ribs 24 25 Pectoral girdle 4 Upper limbs 60

Pelvic girdle 2 Lower limbs 60 Metacarpal bones 10 Phalanges (proximal, middle, distal) 28 Hip bone (coxal bone)

2 Femur 2 Patella 2 Tibia 2 Fibula 2 Tarsal bones 14

Vertebrae 24 Vertebral 26 column Sacrum 1 Coccyx 1 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Metatarsal bones 10 Phalanges

28 Checkpoint (6-6) 17. Define bone markings (surface features). 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Axial Skeleton (6-7) Framework for support and protection of the brain, spinal cord, and organs in the ventral body cavity Provides surface area for attachment of muscles that: 1. Move the head, neck, and trunk 2. Perform respiration 3. Stabilize elements of the appendicular skeleton 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Skull (6-7) Houses brain and sense organs for sight, smell, taste, and balance

Total of 22 bones 8 form the cranium Forming cranial cavity, which houses brain 14 are facial bones Also includes associated bones, 6 auditory ossicles, and one hyoid bone 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Frontal Bone (6-7) Forms the forehead and the roof of the orbits, or eye sockets Supra-orbital foramen Forms a passageway above each orbit for blood vessels and nerves Frontal sinuses Are air-filled cavities above the orbit Lined with mucus membrane Connect with the nasal cavity 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Parietal Bones (6-7) Are posterior to frontal bones and form the roof of the cranium Coronal suture Where the parietal and frontal bones interlock Sagittal suture Where the parietal bones interlock at the midline of the cranium 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Occipital Bone (6-7) Forms the posterior, inferior part of the cranium Lambdoid suture Where the occipital and parietal bones interlock Foramen magnum Surrounds the connection between the brain and the spinal cord

Occipital condyles The articular surfaces that sit on the first vertebra 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Temporal Bones (6-7) On either side of the cranium and zygomatic arches, housing the ossicles in middle ear Squamous sutures Where the temporal and parietal bones interlock Key bone markings External auditory meatus Mandibular fossa Mastoid process Styloid process 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Sphenoid Bone (6-7) Forms part of the floor of the cranium The bridge between the cranial bones and the facial bones

Contains a pair of sinuses, the sphenoidal sinuses "Wings" of the bone extend laterally from a central depression, the sella turcica Which houses and protects the pituitary gland 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Ethmoid Bone (6-7) Anterior to the sphenoid, forms part of the cranial floor Forms the medial surfaces of the orbits and is the roof and sides of the nasal cavity Crista galli projects upward toward the brain and the inferior cribriform plate Has holes in it allowing for olfactory nerves to pass into the nasal cavity 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Ethmoid Bone (6-7) Contains ethmoidal sinuses

Projections into the nasal cavity toward the nasal septum Called the superior and middle nasal conchae Perpendicular plate extends down from the crista galli between the conchae To form part of the nasal septum 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-10 The Adult Skull, Part I. Coronal suture PARIETAL BONE FRONTAL BONE SPHENOID Squamous

suture Supra-orbital foramen TEMPORAL BONE NASAL BONE LACRIMAL BONE Lambdoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process ETHMOID

Infra-orbital foramen MAXILLA ZYGOMATIC BONE OCCIPITAL BONE Zygomatic arch Styloid process Zygomatic process of temporal bone Temporal process of zygomatic bone Coronoid process 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. MANDIBLE

The Maxillae (6-7) Also called the maxillary bones Articulate with all other facial bones except for the mandible Forms the floor and medial sides of the rim of the orbits, the walls of the nasal cavity, and the anterior roof of the mouth (bony palate) Maxillary sinuses Drain into nasal cavity Lighten the weight of the bones 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Palatine and Vomer Bones (6-7) Palatine bones form the posterior surface of the bony palate, or roof of the mouth Superior surfaces form the floor of the nasal cavity Superior tips form part of orbital floor Vomer articulates with paired palatine bones and forms part of the nasal septum

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Zygomatic Bones (6-7) Articulate with the frontal bone and the maxillae, forming the lateral wall of the orbit Temporal process of the zygomatic Curves laterally and posteriorly to articulate with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone Forming the zygomatic arch 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Nasal and Lacrimal Bones (6-7) Nasal bones form the bridge of the nose between the orbits Articulating with the frontal and maxillary bones Lacrimal bones are found within the orbit on the medial surfaces Articulating with the frontal, ethmoid, and maxillary bones 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Inferior Nasal Conchae and Nasal Complex (6-7) Inferior nasal conchae project from lateral walls of nasal cavity Changing airflow to improve sense of smell The nasal complex is made of all the bones that form the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses that drain into it Nasal septum divides the cavity into right and left 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-13 The Paranasal Sinuses. Frontal sinus Ethmoidal sinuses Sphenoidal sinus Maxillary sinus

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Mandible (6-7) The lower jaw Vertical process on either side The ramus extends up toward the temporal bone Posterior process of the ramus, the condylar process Articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone Anterior coronoid process is the attachment point: For the temporalis muscle that closes the jaw 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-11a The Adult Skull, Part II. Sagittal suture PARIETAL BONE

FRONTAL BONE Coronal suture SPHENOID TEMPORAL BONE Supra-orbital foramen Optic canal Superior orbital fissure ETHMOID PALATINE BONE LACRIMAL BONE Temporal process of zygomatic bone Mastoid process of temporal bone Infra-orbital foramen Middle nasal concha (part of ethmoid)

Perpendicular plate of ethmoid VOMER ZYGOMATIC BONE NASAL BONE MAXILLA INFERIOR NASAL CONCHA MANDIBLE Anterior view 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Nasal septum (bony portion) Figure 6-11b The Adult Skull, Part II. FRONTAL BONE

ZYGOMATIC BONE VOMER MAXILLA PALATINE BONE Zygomatic arch SPHENOID Styloid process Mandibular fossa External acoustic meatus TEMPORAL BONE Mastoid process Lambdoid suture Occipital condyle OCCIPITAL BONE

Foramen magnum External occipital protuberance Inferior view 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-12a Sectional Anatomy of the Skull. FRONTAL BONE ETHMOID Crista galli Cribriform plate SPHENOID Sella turcica TEMPORAL BONE

PARIETAL BONE OCCIPITAL BONE Superior view of a horizontal section through the skull, showing the floor of the cranial cavity 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-12b Sectional Anatomy of the Skull. PARIETAL BONE Sella turcica FRONTAL BONE SPHENOID Sphenoidal sinus (right) Frontal sinus TEMPORAL BONE

Crista galli Lambdoid suture NASAL BONE ETHMOID OCCIPITAL BONE Styloid process PALATINE BONE MAXILLA MANDIBLE 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-12c Sectional Anatomy of the Skull. FRONTAL

BONE Frontal sinuses Sphenoidal sinuses SPHENOID ETHMOID NASAL BONE PALATINE BONE (bony palate) MAXILLA (bony palate) Superior Middle Nasal conchae of ethmoid

INFERIOR NASAL CONCHA A sagittal section through the skull, with the nasal septum removed to show major features of the wall of the right nasal cavity 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Hyoid Bone (6-7) Small and U-shaped The only bone in the body not directly articulated with another bone Is suspended from the styloid processes of the temporal bones Serves as attachment for muscles of the larynx, the tongue, and the pharynx 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-14 The Hyoid Bone. Greater horn

Lesser horn Body 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Skulls of Infants and Children (6-7) Fetal development of skull bones occurs around the developing brain At birth: The cranial bones are connected with connective tissue called fontanelles Flexible soft spots that allow for easier delivery of the head By age 4: The fontanelles disappear and skull growth is finished 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-15 The Skull of a Newborn. Coronal suture

FRONTAL BONE PARIETAL BONE Sphenoidal fontanelle NASAL BONE Squamous suture Lambdoid suture MAXILLA OCCIPITAL BONE SPHENOID MANDIBLE TEMPORAL

BONE PARIETAL BONE Mastoid fontanelle FRONTAL BONE Lateral view Coronal suture Frontal suture FRONTAL BONE Superior view

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior Sagittal suture fontanelle PARIETAL BONE Occipital fontanelle Lambdoid suture OCCIPITAL BONE The Vertebral Column (6-7) Also called the spine Has 24 vertebrae A fused sacrum A fused coccyx Provides weight-bearing column of support and protection of spinal cord

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Vertebral Column (6-7) Cervical region (neck) has 7 cervical vertebrae Thoracic region has 12 thoracic vertebrae Lumbar region has 5 lumbar vertebrae Sacral region has 5 fused vertebrae in the sacrum Coccygeal region also made of 35 fused vertebrae in the coccyx 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Spinal Curvature (6-7) Primary curves Project posteriorly and include the thoracic and sacral curves Are present at birth Secondary curves Project anteriorly and include the cervical and lumbar curves Develop several months after birth 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Spinal Curvatures (6-7) Abnormal curves Kyphosis (exaggerated thoracic curve) Lordosis (exaggerated lumbar curve) Scoliosis (abnormal lateral curve) 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-16 The Vertebral Column. VERTEBRAL REGIONS SPINAL CURVES Cervical Thoracic C1 C2

C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 T1 T T3 2 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 L1 Cervical

Thoracic L2 Lumbar L3 Lumbar L4 L5 Sacral Sacral Coccygeal 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. General Vertebral Anatomy (6-7) Vertebral bodies Bear weight and are separated from each other by intervertebral discs

Vertebral arches Form posterior margin of vertebral foramina, which form the vertebral canal Have walls called pedicles and roofs called laminae 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. General Vertebral Anatomy (6-7) Transverse processes project laterally or dorsolaterally from the pedicles Spinous process projects posteriorly from the laminae The inferior and superior articular processes arise at junction of pedicles and laminae on both sides of the vertebrae Contact one another at the articular facets Forming the intervertebral foramina 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cervical Vertebrae (6-7) C1C7 Body relatively small, and is oval and concave in

shape Vertebral foramina gradually decrease in diameter, but are relatively large Spinous process is stumpy, with notched tip Transverse processes have transverse foramina That protect blood vessels to and from the brain 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cervical Vertebrae (6-7) C1 is the atlas Holds up the head Articulates with the occipital condyles Allows for a specific "nodding yes" movement C2 is the axis Has a projection up toward the atlas, called the dens, or odontoid process Allows for rotational "shaking the head no" movement 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-18 The Atlas and Axis.

Dens (odontoid process) Transverse ligament Atlas (C1) Articulates withoccipital condyles Axis (C2) Articulates with atlas The atlas/axis complex 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Thoracic Vertebrae (6-7) T1T12 Has heart-shaped body

Has a long, slender spinous process that points inferiorly Has costal facets that articulate with the ribs 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Lumbar Vertebrae (7-6) L1L5 Vertebral body is significantly larger, thicker, and more oval Has a massive, stumpy spinous process Has a bladelike transverse process 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-17 Typical Vertebrae of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Regions. Vertebral arch Spinous process Lamina Superior articular process

Superior articular facet Transverse foramen Vertebral foramen Pedicle Transverse process Vertebral body Cervical vertebra, superior view Transverse Spinous process process Lamina Transverse costal facet

for inferior rib Superior articular facet Pedicle Vertebral foramen Superior costal facet for superior rib Vertebral body Thoracic vertebra, superior view Superior articular facet Superior articular process Spinous process

Lamina Transverse process Transverse process Vertebral foramen Pedicle Vertebral body Lumbar vertebra, superior view 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-17a Typical Vertebrae of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Regions. Vertebral arch

Spinous process Lamina Pedicle Transverse process Vertebral foramen Vertebral body Cervical vertebra, superior view 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Superior articular process

Superior articular facet Transverse foramen Figure 6-17b Typical Vertebrae of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Regions. Spinous process Transverse process Lamina Transverse costal facet for inferior rib Superior articular facet

Vertebral foramen Vertebral body Pedicle Superior costal facet for superior rib Thoracic vertebra, superior view 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-17c Typical Vertebrae of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Regions. Superior articular facet Superior articular

process Transverse process Spinous process Lamina Transverse process Vertebral foramen Pedicle Vertebral body Lumbar vertebra, superior view 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Sacrum (6-7) Has five fused vertebrae

Protects organs in pelvic cavity Has lateral articulations with pelvic girdle Narrow caudal area is the apex; superior surface is the base Which has the sacral promontory Sacral canal runs down posterior surface Sacral foramina on either side of median sacral crest 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Coccyx (6-7) Three to five fused vertebrae Provides attachment for muscles of the anal opening 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-19 The Sacrum and Coccyx. Articular process

Entrance to sacral canal Base Sacral promontory Median sacral crest Sacral hiatus Sacral foramina Apex Coccyx Posterior view Anterior view

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Thoracic Cage (6-7) Made of thoracic vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternum Forming the walls of the thoracic cavity Seven pairs of true ribs, called vertebrosternal ribs Connect to sternum with costal cartilages Five pairs of false ribs, pairs 810, are vertebrochondral ribs Last two pairs are floating ribs, or vertebral ribs 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Three Parts of the Sternum (6-7) Also called the breastbone 1. The superior broad part is the manubrium; articulates with the clavicle of the appendicular skeleton

2. The long body 3. The inferior tip, the xiphoid process 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-20 The Thoracic Cage. Jugular notch T1 Clavicular articulation 1 Manubrium Sternum 2 3 Body Xiphoid process Costal

cartilages 5 10 6 T11 11 7 T12 Vertebrochondral ribs (ribs 810) Floating ribs (ribs 1112) True ribs (ribs 17) 4

12 8 9 False ribs (ribs 812) Anterior view, showing the ribs, costal cartilages, and the sternum Jugular notch Manubrium Sternum Body True ribs (17)

Xiphoid process Costal cartilages False ribs (812) Floating ribs Anterior view ofInc. the ribs, sternum, and 2013 Pearson Education, costal cartilages, shown diagrammatically Checkpoint (6-7) 18. The mastoid and styloid processes are found on which skull bone?

19. What bone contains the depression called the sella turcica? What is located in the depression? 20. Which bone of the cranium articulates directly with the vertebral column? 21. During baseball practice, a ball hits Casey in the eye, fracturing bones directly above and below the orbit. Which bones were broken? 22. What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses? 23. Why would a fracture of the coronoid process of the mandible make it difficult to close the mouth? 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-7) 24. What signs would you expect to see in a person suffering from a fractured hyoid bone? 25. Joe suffered a hairline fracture at the base of the dens. Which bone is fractured, and where would you find it? 26. In adults, five large vertebrae fuse to form what single structure? 27. Why are the bodies of the lumbar vertebrae so large? 28. What are the differences between true ribs and false ribs?

29. Improper administration of CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) could result in a fracture of which bone(s)? 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Pectoral Girdle (6-8) Connects the upper limbs to the trunk Includes the clavicle and the scapula Clavicle S-shaped bone articulates with manubrium at sternal end and with the acromion process of the scapula 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Scapula (6-8) A broad triangular bone with superior, medial, and lateral borders The three tips are the superior, inferior, and lateral angles Lateral angle, or head of the scapula, has the glenoid cavity Which articulates with the humerus to form the shoulder joint

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Scapula (6-8) Subscapular fossa A depression in the anterior surface where the subscapularis muscle is attached Coracoid process The smaller process Posterior and larger is the acromion process Which articulates with the distal end of the clavicle Scapular spine Divides the scapula into the supraspinous fossa and the infraspinous fossa 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-21 The Clavicle. Acromial end

LATERAL Sternal end MEDIAL Facet for articulation with acromion 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-22 The Scapula. Supraspinous fossa Acromion Coracoid process

Superior border Acromion Coracoid process Coracoid process Acromion Superior border Neck Subscapular fossa Lateral border

Body Scapular spine Medial border Lateral border Scapular spine Infraspinous fossa Glenoid cavity Body Medial border Lateral

border Inferior angle Anterior view Lateral view 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view The Upper Limb (6-8) Contains the bones of the arm The humerus Proximal area of the limb from the scapula to the elbow Contains the bones of the forearm The radius and ulna Contains the bones of the wrist and hand

The carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Humerus (6-8) Proximally, the round head articulates with the scapula Greater tubercle is a rounded projection on lateral surface of head Lesser tubercle lies anteriorly Is separated from the greater tubercle by the intertubercular groove 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Humerus (6-8) The proximal shaft is rounded with deltoid tuberosity along lateral border Distally, the medial and lateral epicondyles project to either side Smooth condyle articulates with radius and ulna 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Humerus (6-8) The capitulum forms the lateral region of the condyle The shallow radial fossa is proximal to the capitulum 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-23 The Right Humerus. Greater tubercle Intertubercular groove Lesser tubercle Head Greater tubercle

Anatomical neck Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Groove for radial nerve Shaft Lateral epicondyle Olecranon fossa Coronoid Radial fossa fossa Medial

epicondyle Capitulum Trochlea Condyle Anterior surface Trochlea Posterior surface 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Ulna and Radius (6-8) Olecranon process of the ulna is the point of the elbow The trochlear notch articulates with the trochlea of the humerus The coronoid process forms the inferior lip of the notch 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Ulna and Radius (6-8) The ulnar shaft ends distally in the short

styloid process Which sits on the distal end of the radius The neck of the radius is between the head and the radial tuberosity Radial head articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-24 The Right Radius and Ulna. Olecranon Trochlear notch Coronoid process Head of radius Neck of radius Radial tuberosity

Radial notch Ulnar tuberosity ULNA RADIUS ULNA Lateral view of ulna, showing trochlear notch Interosseous membrane Distal radio-ulnar joint Styloid process of radius Ulnar head Styloid process

of ulna Anterior view 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Bones of the Wrists and Hands (6-8) Carpal bones The proximal row includes: The scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform bones The distal row includes: The trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones Five metacarpal bones Form the palm of the hand and articulate with the phalanges 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-25 Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand.

RADIUS ULNA Styloid process of radius Styloid process of ulna Scaphoid Lunate Trapezium Triquetrum Pisiform

Trapezoid Capitate I Hamate Metacarpal bones V IV III II Proximal Middle Distal

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Phalanges The Pelvic Girdle (6-8) Articulates with the thigh bones More massive than the pectoral girdle Firmly attached to the axial skeleton Consists of two large hip bones or coxal bones Each a fusion of three bones The ilium, the ischium, and the pubis Hips articulate with the sacrum at the sacroiliac 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Hip Bone (6-8) The ilium is superior and the largest component Superior margin forms the iliac crest

The ischium has a rough projection Called the ischial tuberosity or seat bone The ischium branches over to the pubis Creating the circle of the obturator foramen 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Pelvis (6-8) Consists of the hip bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx Stabilized by a network of ligaments Differences in the characteristics of the male versus female pelvis In females, the pelvis is better suited for pregnancy and delivery 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. pelvis, a larger Females have a broader lower

Figure 6-26 The Pelvis. Iliac crest Sacrum Ilium L5 Hip bone Sacroiliac joint Coccyx Ischium Pubis ILIUM

SACRUM Pelvis, anterior view PUBIS Acetabulum Pubic symphysis Pubic tubercle Ilium ISCHIUM Obturator foramen Hip

bone Adult male pelvis, anterior view Ischium Pubis Ischial tuberosity Right hip bone of the pelvis, lateral view 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-27 Differences in the Anatomy of the Pelvis in Males and Females. Pelvic outlet, relatively broad Pelvic outlet, relatively narrow 100 or more

Female 90 or less Male 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Lower Limb (6-8) Contains the bones of the thigh The femur is the longest bone in the body Contains the patella or kneecap Contains the bones of the leg The tibia and fibula Contains the bones of the ankle and foot 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Femur and Patella (6-8) Greater and lesser trochanters

Extend laterally from neck and shaft Linea aspera Attachment for adductor muscles Large epicondyles on distal end Inferior surfaces form lateral and medial condyles The patella is the kneecap, sliding over the 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. anterior surface of the knee joint Figure 6-28 The Right Femur. Articular surface of head Greater trochanter

Greater trochanter Neck Lesser trochanter Linea aspera Shaft of femur Lateral epicondyle Patellar surface Lateral epicondyle

Lateral condyle Medial epicondyle Anterior surface Medial condyle Lateral condyle Posterior surface 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Tibia (6-8) Larger, medial shin bone with own lateral and medial condyles That articulate with condyles of femur

Anterior margin Extends down the anterior tibial surface Medial malleolus A large distal process that articulates with the 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Fibula (6-8) Runs parallel and lateral to tibia Articulates with tibia inferior to the lateral tibial condyle Does not articulate with the ankle Lateral malleolus is distal end of fibula Interosseus membrane connects tibia and 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-29 The Right Tibia and Fibula. Lateral tibial condyle Head of fibula

Medial tibial condyle Tibial tuberosity Interosseous membrane Anterior margin TIBIA FIBULA Medial malleolus (tibia) Inferior articular 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. surface Lateral malleolus (fibula) The Bones of the Ankle and Foot

(6-8) Seven ankle or tarsal bones include: The talus, calcaneus, navicular, and cuboid, and the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms Only the talus articulates with the tibia and fibula The largest is the calcaneus, or heel bone The metatarsals and phalanges are in the 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. same pattern as in the hand Figure 6-30a The Bones of the Ankle and Foot. Calcaneus Trochlea of talus Talus Cuboid

Navicular V Phalanges Proximal Middle Distal IV III II Cuneiform bones Lateral Intermediate Medial I Metatarsal bones Hallux Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx

Superior view, rightInc.foot 2013 Pearson Education, Figure 6-30b The Bones of the Ankle and Foot. Phalanges Medial cuneiform bone Metatarsal bones Navicular Talus

Calcaneus Medial view, right foot 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-8) 30. In what way would a broken clavicle affect the mobility of the scapula? 31. The rounded projections on either side of the elbow are parts of which bone? 32. Which of the two bones of the forearm is lateral in the anatomical position? 33. Which three bones make up a hip bone? 34. The fibula neither participates in the knee joint nor bears weight. When it is fractured, however, walking becomes difficult. Why? 35. While jumping off the back steps of his house, 10-year-old Cesar lands on his right heel and breaks his foot. Which bone is most likely broken? 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Categories of Joints (6-9) Classified by structure Based on anatomy of joints Includes fibrous, cartilaginous (both with limited movement), and synovial (freely movable) Classified by function Based on range of motion Includes synarthrosis 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. (immovable), Table 6-2 A Functional and Structural Classifi cation of Articulations 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Immovable Joints or Synarthroses (6-9) Can be fibrous or cartilaginous

Sutures of the skull connected with dense connective tissue Gomphosis A ligament binding each tooth in the socket Synchondrosis A rigid cartilaginous connection 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Freely Movable Joints or Diarthroses (6-9) Synovial joints with a wide range of motion Usually found at the ends of long bones Ends of bones covered with articular cartilages Surrounded with a fibrous joint capsule Inner surfaces are lined with the synovial membrane

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Freely Movable Joints or Diarthroses (6-9) Some synovial joints have additional padding In the form of menisci For example, in the knee Fat pads can also act as cushions Ligaments join bone to bone May be found inside and/or outside the joint capsule Bursae are packets of connective tissue containing synovial fluid 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-31 The Structure of Synovial Joints. Marrow cavity

Spongy bone Periosteum Fibrous joint capsule Synovial membrane Articular cartilages Joint cavity (containing synovial fluid) Bursa Joint capsule Synovial membrane Meniscus Femur Intracapsular ligament Tibia

Quadriceps tendon Patella Articular cartilage Fat pad Patellar ligament Joint cavity Meniscus Compact bone Synovial joint, sagittal section Knee joint, sagittal section 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-9) 36. Name and describe the three types of joints as classified by the amount of movement possible. 37. In a newborn, the large bones of the skull

are joined by fibrous connective tissue. Which type of joint are these? These skull bones later grow, interlock, and form 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Synovial Joint Movement (6-10) Gliding When two opposing surfaces slide past each other For example, the carpal bones Angular movement includes: Flexion which decreases the angle of two long bones Extension increases the angle Hip and shoulder flex by moving anteriorly 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Extend by moving posteriorly

Angular Movement (6-10) Abduction Moves a limb away from the midline For example, separating the fingers Adduction Moves a limb toward the midline For example, bringing the fingers together Circumduction Moves the limbs in a loop 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-32 Angular Movements. Extension Flexion Hyperextension Abduction

Flexion Abduction Hyperextension Flexion Adduction Adduction Extension Flexion Extension Abduction Hyperextension Adduction

Abduction Adduction Extension Flexion/extension Adduction Abduction/adduction Abduction Circumduction Adduction/abduction 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-32a Angular Movements. Extension Flexion

Hyperextension Flexion Flexion Extension Flexion Hyperextension Extension Hyperextension Extension Flexion/extension 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-32b Angular Movements. Abduction

Abduction Adduction Adduction Abduction Adduction Abduction Adduction Abduction/adduction 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-32c Angular Movements. Adduction Abduction

Adduction/abduction 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-32d Angular Movements. Circumduction 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Rotational Joint Movements (6-10) Involves turning around the longitudinal axis of the body or limb For example, turning the head Rotation of the distal end of the radius across the ulna is a form of rotation Pronation The palm is facing the front and is then rotated to the back Supination

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-33 Rotational Movements. Head rotation Right rotation Lateral (external) rotation Left rotation Supination Pronation Medial

(internal) rotation Supination Pronation 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Joint Movements (6-10) Inversion twists the sole of the foot inward Eversion twists it outward Dorsiflexion elevates the sole at the ankle, putting the heel down Plantar flexion is to point the toes Opposition is moving the thumb toward the palm to grasp Reposition returns it from opposition 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Joint Movements (6-10) Elevation and depression

Occurs when a structure moves superiorly and inferiorly For example, closing and opening your mandible Lateral flexion Is a bending of the vertebral column to the side 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-34 Special Movements. Dorsiflexion (flexion at ankle) Plantar flexion (extension at ankle) Eversion Retraction Protraction

Opposition Inversion Depression Elevation 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Lateral flexion Types of Synovial Joints (6-10) Gliding joints Have flat or slightly curved faces Movement is slight Hinge joints Permit angular movement in one plane Like opening and closing a door

Pivot joints Permit rotation only Like turning the head or supinating and pronating the palm 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Synovial Joints (6-10) Condylar joints Occur where an oval surface nests with a depression on the other bone Allowing for angular motion in two planes, along or across the length of the oval Saddle joints Have two bones that each have a concave face on one axis and convex on the other 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Allowing for circumduction, but not rotation

Types of Synovial Joints (6-10) Ball-and-socket joints Occur where the end of one bone is a round head that nests within the cup-shaped depression in the other bone Allow for a wide range of motion For example, the hip and shoulder joints 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-35 Synovial Joints SPOTLIGHT FIGURE 6-35 Synovial Joints Movement: multidirectional in a single plane Gliding joint

le Clavic Manubrium Hinge joint Humerus Movement: angular in a single plane Ulna Pivot joint Atlas Axis Movement: rotational in a single plane

Condylar joint Scaphoid bone Radius Ulna Movement: angular in two planes Saddle joint Metacarpal bone of thumb Trapezium Movement: angular in two planes, and circumduction

Ball-and-socket joint Scapula Humerus Movement: angular, rotational, and circumduction 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-10) 38. Give the proper term for each of the following types of motion: (a) moving the humerus away from the longitudinal axis of the body, (b) turning the palms so that they face forward, and (c) bending the elbow. 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Intervertebral Articulations (6-11)

From the axis to the sacrum Include gliding joints between the superior and inferior articular processes And symphyseal joints between the vertebral bodies Separated and padded by intervertebral discs Pearson Education, Inc. Made of a tough 2013 outer fibrocartilage surrounding Figure 6-36 Intervertebral Articulations. Intervertebral foramen Superior articular facet Intervertebral

Disc Inner gelantinous layer Outer fibrocartilage layer Spinal cord Posterior ligaments Spinal nerve Superior articular process Inferior articular process Anterior longitudinal

ligament 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Shoulder Joint (6-11) Most range of motion of any joint Therefore, more likely to dislocate Ball-and-socket structure with many bursae Muscles that surround and move the shoulder joint form the rotator cuff PLAY ANIMATION Humerus Circumduction 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-37 The Shoulder Joint. Ligaments interconnecting clavicle and scapula Tendon of supraspinatus

muscle Clavicle Acromion Joint capsule Subdeltoid bursa Scapula Coracoid process Articular cartilages Joint cavity Synovial membrane

Humerus Joint capsule 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Elbow Joint (6-11) Hinge joint is found between the humerus and ulna A weak joint is between the humerus and radius Very stable due to interlocking of humerus and ulna ANIMATION Elbow Flexion/Extension PLAY 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-38 The Elbow Joint.

Coronoid fossa Joint capsule Humerus Synovial membrane Olecranon fossa Coronoid process Joint capsule Tendon of biceps brachii Triceps

tendon Trochlea Olecranon Bursa Ulna Radius Articular cartilage 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Hip Joint (6-11) Ball-and-socket joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the coxal bone Is very dense and strong Due to extensive joint capsule, supporting ligaments, and strong surrounding muscles

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-39 The Hip Joint. Reinforcing ligaments Greater trochanter Joint capsule The hip joint is extremely strong and stable, in part because of the massive joint capsule and surrounding ligaments. Acetabulum Articular cartilage Synovial membrane Joint capsule Fat pad Ligament of the

femoral head Femur Joint capsule This sectional view of the right hip shows the structure of the joint and the position of the ligament of the fermoral head. 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Knee Joint (6-11) Complex joint between distal femoral and proximal tibial condyles And between the patella and femur Has multiple joint capsules And condyles are cushioned by the medial and lateral menisci Multiple ligaments from different angles

support the knee Patella is within quadriceps tendon Patellar ligament links to tibial anterior 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-40 The Knee Joint. Patellar surface Quadriceps tendon Joint capsule Patella Fibular collateral ligament

Patellar ligament Tibial collateral ligament Fibular collateral ligament Medial condyle Lateral condyle Lateral meniscus Cut

tendon Tibia Tibial collateral ligament Medial meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament Fibula Tibia Anterior view of the right knee joint, superficial layer Posterior cruciate ligament

Deep anterior view of the right knee when flexed 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-11) 40. Would a tennis player or a jogger be more likely to develop inflammation of the subdeltoid bursa? Why? 41. Daphne falls on her hands with her elbows slightly flexed. After the fall, she can't move her left arm at the elbow. If a fracture exists, which bone is most likely broken? 42. Why is a complete dislocation of the knee joint an infrequent event? 43. What signs would you expect to see in an individual who has damaged the menisci of the knee joint? 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Skeletal Support of Other Body Systems (6-12) Balance between bone formation and

recycling creates dynamic interactions with other systems For example, bones: Provide attachments for muscles Interact with cardiovascular and lymphatic systems Are under the control of the endocrine system 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6-41 SYSTEM INTEGRATOR Skeletal System Synthesizes vitamin D3, essential for calcium and phosphorus absorption (bone maintenance and growth) Skeletal System Provides structural

support Body System Integumentary (Page 138) Integumentary Body System Nervous (Page 302) Endocrine (Page 376) Cardiovascular (Page 467) Lymphatic (Page 500) Reproductive (Page 671)

Urinary (Page 637) Digestive (Page 572) Respiratory (Page 532) The skeletal system provides structural support and protection for the body. The skeleton also stores calcium, phosphate, and other minerals necessary for many functions in other organ systems. In addition, the lipids in the yellow marrow serve as

an energy reserve and blood cell production occurs in the red marrow. Muscular (Page 241) The SKELETAL System 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Checkpoint (6-12) 44. Describe the functional relationship between the skeletal system and the integumentary system. 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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