Zoology - Arthropod Unit

Zoology - Arthropod Unit

Zoology Arthropod Unit Chapter 18 Arthropods Chapter 19 Crustaceans Chap.20 Terrestrial Arthropods Chapter 18 Objectives 1. Identify characteristics distinguishing phylum Arthropoda 2. Discuss adaptations characteristic of the phylum Arthropoda with regard to

Body form, morphology & embryonic development Feeding and digestion Excretion Movement/locomotion Reproduction Sensory/Motor response Any special features unique to the phylum 3. Identify derived characteristics that contribute to the phylogeny of phylum Arthropoda

Arthropod Diversity Characteristics of Arthropods

Arthro = joint Poda = foot Arthropods are named for their jointed appendages All arthropods have an exoskeleton made of an amino sugar called Chitin

Arthropod Appendages Appendages in arthropods are modified for a number of functions: Walking legs Mouth parts

Antennae Claws Organs for mating Holding eggs Modified Appendages Segmentation

Segmentation is an ancestral characteristic that carries over from the Annelids Note the similarity of the

insect caterpillar to polychaete worms Rick Takahashi on Segmentation Fusion of Segments forming Body Regions These animals have segements

in the head and thorax region fused together Segmentation The millipede below has segments fused in pairs, resulting in 2 pair of legs per segment These animals

have little differentiation between body segments Exoskeleton: Advantages

The exoskeleton provides rigid support and strong points for muscle attachment The exoskeleton also forms a

protective shell Exoskeleton: Disadvantages The exoskeleton prevents drying

out, but also prevents respiration through the skin The exoskeleton provides rigid support, but prevents growth requiring molting

Other Arthropod Characteristics

Striated muscle associated with the exoskeleton, and smooth muscle associated with the gut Reduced body cavity, filled with blood, forming an open circulatory system Specialized excretory glands (coxal, antennal or maxillary glands; malpighian tubules) Specialized respiratory organs (gills,

tracheae, book lungs) Dorsal brain with fused ventral nerve cords Nervous System Like the annelids, the arthropods have a dorsal brain, fused ventral nerve cords, and paired nerve branches that encircle the pharynx

Excretory System The exoskeleton prevents the use of the skin as an excretory organ. In insects, salts and metabolic wastes are removed by Malpighian Tubules The malpighian tubules extend into the hemocoel,

extract waste materials and funnel them into the digestive tract for removal Respiratory Adaptations

Tracheal system in insects bring air directly to tissues Book Lungs in Arachnids : a series of flattened tissues to create surfaces

for gas exchange Gills in Crustaceans are extensions of the walking legs Arthropod Phylogeny Arthropod Phylogeny

Subphylum Trilobita Extremely common in the early Paleozoic era, trilobites are extinct today Subphylum Chelicerata Class Merostomata includes Horseshoe Crabs Class Pycnogonida includes Sea Spiders Class Arachnida includes spiders, scorpions, ticks and

mites Subphylum Crustacea Lobsters, crabs, shrimp, crayfish and others less familiar Subphylum Uniramia

Myriapods (Centipedes and millipedes) and Insects Trilobites Chelicerates: Arachnids Chelicerates: Scorpions Chelicerates: Ticks and Mites

Crustaceans Uniramia: Myriapods Millipedes have 2 pair of legs per segment Centipedes have 1 pair of legs per segment

Uniramia: Insects Chapter 19 Objectives 4. Distinguish Crustaceans from other arthropods 5. Perform a dissection of the crayfish, a representative crustacean. 6. Identify internal and external anatomical features of the crayfish

Chapter 20 Objectives 7. Compare and contrast Chilopods, Diplopods, and Insects 8. Discuss adaptations for gas exchange in a terrestrial environment as displayed in the insects 9. Discuss adaptations for excretion of metabolic waste as displayed in the insects 10. Discuss the process of metamorphosis in

insects. Chapter 20 Objectives 10. Discuss the process of metamorphosis in insects. 11. Distinguish between complete and incomplete metamorphosis 12. Perform a dissection of the grasshopper, a representative insect 13. Identify internal and external anatomical

features of the grasshopper

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